Staph infections are caused by staphylococcus bacteria, types of germs commonly found on the skin or in the nose of even healthy individuals. Most of the time, these bacteria cause no problems or result in relatively minor skin infections.
This infection is deadly when the bacteria invade deeper into your body, entering your bloodstream, joints, bones, lungs, or heart. A growing number of otherwise healthy people are developing life-threatening staph infections. Nowadays steam infection is not responding to antibiotics.
Staph infections can range from minor skin problems to endocarditis, a life-threatening infection of the inner lining of your heart (endocardium). Because of this, signs and symptoms of staph infections vary widely, depending on the location and severity of the infection.
Skin infections caused by staph bacteria include:
- Boil a pocket of pus that develops in a hair follicle or oil gland. The skin over the infected area usually becomes red and swollen. When boil breaks pus oozes out.
- Impetigo this contagious, often painful rash can be caused by staph bacteria. Impetigo usually features large blisters that may ooze fluid and develop a honey-colored crust.
- Cellulitis an infection of the deeper layers of the skin causes skin redness and swelling on the surface of your skin. Sores or areas of oozing discharge may develop, too.
- Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome toxins produced as a result of a staph infection may lead to staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Affecting mostly babies and children, this condition features a fever, a rash, and sometimes blisters. When the blisters break, the top layer of skin comes off leaving a red, raw surface that looks like a burn.
Staph bacteria are one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Symptoms come on quickly, usually within hours of eating contaminated food. Symptoms usually disappear quickly, too, often lasting just half a day.
Signs and symptoms of staff infection include;
- Nausea and vomiting
- Low blood pressure
Also known as bloodstream infection, bacteremia occurs when staph bacteria enter a person’s bloodstream. Fever and low blood pressure are signs of bacteremia. The bacteria can travel to locations deep within your body, to produce infections affecting:
- Internal organs, such as your brain, heart or lungs
- Bones and muscles
- Surgically implanted devices, such as artificial joints or cardiac pacemakers
Toxic shock syndrome
This life-threatening condition results from toxins produced by some strains of staph bacteria and has been linked to certain types of tampons, skin wounds and surgery. It usually develops suddenly with:
- A high fever
- Nausea and vomiting
- A rash on your palms and soles that resembles a sunburn
- Muscle aches
- Stomach pain
Septic arthritis is often caused by a staph infection. The bacteria often target the knees, shoulders, hips, and fingers or toes. Signs and symptoms may include:
- Joint swelling
- Severe pain in the affected joint
When to see a doctor
When you experience the following signs seek medical advice;
- An area of red, irritated or painful skin
- Pus-filled blisters
- Skin infections are being passed from one family member to another
- Two or more family members have skin infections at the same time
Many people carry staph bacteria and never develop staph infections. However, if you develop a staph infection, there’s a good chance that it’s from bacteria you’ve been carrying around for some time.
These bacteria can also be transmitted from person to person. Because staph bacteria are so hardy, they can live on objects such as pillowcases or towels long enough to transfer to the next person who touches them.
Staph bacteria are able to survive:
- Extremes of temperature
- Stomach acid
A variety of factors including the status of your immune system to the types of sports you play — can increase your risk of developing staph infections.
Underlying health conditions
Certain disorders or the medications used to treat them can make you more susceptible to staph infections. People who may be more likely to get a staph infection include those with:
- Diabetes who use insulin
- Kidney failure requiring dialysis
- Weakened immune systems — either from a disease or medications that suppress the immune system
- A transplant
- Cancer, especially those who are undergoing chemotherapy or radiation
- Skin damage from conditions such as eczema, insect bites or minor trauma that opens the skin
- Respiratory illness, such as cystic fibrosis or emphysema
Current or recent hospitalization
Despite vigorous attempts to eradicate them, staph bacteria remain present in hospitals, where they attack the most vulnerable, including people with:
- Weakened immune systems
- Surgical wounds
Staph bacteria can travel along with the medical tubing that connects the outside world with your internal organs. Examples include:
- Dialysis tubing
- Urinary catheters
- Feeding tubes
- Breathing tubes
- Intravascular catheters
Staph bacteria can spread easily through cuts, abrasions, and skin-to-skin contact. Staph infections may also spread in the locker room through shared razors, towels, uniforms or equipment.
Unsanitary food preparation
Food handlers who don’t properly wash their hands can transfer staph from their skin to the food they’re preparing. Foods that are contaminated with staph look and taste normal.
If staph bacteria invade your bloodstream, you may develop a type of infection that affects your entire body. Called sepsis, this infection can lead to septic shock a life-threatening episode with extremely low blood pressure.
Some prevention measures of staff infection include;
- Wash your hands washing your hands carefully is the best precaution against germs. Wash your hands with soap and water briskly for at least 20 seconds. Then dry them with a disposable towel and use another towel to turn off the faucet. If your hands aren’t visibly dirty, you can use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Wash your hands with soap and water regularly, such as before, during, and after making food; after handling raw meat or poultry; before eating; after using the bathroom; and after touching an animal or animal waste.
- Keep wounds covered cover abrasions clean and covered with sterile, dry bandages until they heal. The pus from infected sores often contains staph bacteria, and keeping wounds covered will help keep the bacteria from spreading.
- Reduce tampon risks toxic shock syndrome is caused by staph bacteria. Tampons left in for long periods can be a breeding ground for staph bacteria. You can reduce your chances of getting toxic shock syndrome by changing your tampon frequently at least every four to eight hours. Use the lowest absorbency tampon you can. Try to alternate tampons with sanitary napkins whenever possible.
- Keep personal items personal it is advisable not to share personal items like towels, sheets, razors, clothing, and athletic equipment. Staph infections can spread on objects, as well as from person to person.
- Wash clothing and bedding in hot water staph bacteria can survive on clothing and bedding that isn’t properly washed. To get bacteria off clothing and sheets, wash them in hot water whenever possible. You can also use bleach on any bleach-safe materials. Drying in the dryer is better than air-drying, but staph bacteria may survive the clothes dryer.
- Take food safety precautions like washing your hands before handling food. If food will be out for a while, make sure that hot foods stay hot above 140 F (60 C) and that cold food stay at 40 F (4.4 C) or below. Refrigerate leftovers as soon as possible. Wash cutting boards and counters with soap and water.