Blood in urine (hematuria) – Symptoms and causes

Overview Blood in the urine can be a problem or a disorder. It can also be harmless. The blood seen when you have a disorder is called gross hematuria. Urinary blood that’s visible only under a microscope (microscopic hematuria) is found when your doctor tests your urine. Your treatment depends on the cause. Symptoms Gross […]

Overview

Hematuria (Blood in the Urine) | Advanced Urology

Blood in the urine can be a problem or a disorder. It can also be harmless.

The blood seen when you have a disorder is called gross hematuria. Urinary blood that’s visible only under a microscope (microscopic hematuria) is found when your doctor tests your urine.

Your treatment depends on the cause.
Symptoms

Gross hematuria produces pink, red, or cola-colored urine due to the presence of red blood cells. It takes little blood to produce red urine, and the bleeding usually isn’t painful. Passing blood clots in your urine, however, can be painful.

Bloody urine often occurs without other signs or symptoms.

When to see a doctor

Immediately you notice any blood in the urine seek medical advice.

Some medications, such as the laxative Ex-lax, and certain foods, including beets, rhubarb, and berries, can cause your urine to turn red. A change in urine color caused by drugs, food, or exercise might go away within a few days.

Bloody urine looks different, but you might not be able to tell the difference. It’s best to see your doctor anytime you see red-colored urine.

Causes

When you have hematuria, your kidneys or other parts of your urinary tract allow blood cells to leak into urine. Various problems can cause this leakage, including:

 urinary system
                                                                 
  • Urinary tract infections occur when bacteria enter your body through the urethra and multiply in your bladder. Symptoms can include a persistent urge to urinate, pain and burning with urination, and extremely strong-smelling urine.
  • Kidney infections (pyelonephritis)  occur when bacteria enter your kidneys from your bloodstream or move from your ureters to your kidney(s). Signs and symptoms are often similar to bladder infections, though kidney infections are more likely to cause a fever and flank pain.
  • A bladder or kidney stone the minerals in concentrated urine sometimes form crystals on the walls of your kidneys or bladder. Over time, the crystals can become small, hard stones. The stones are generally painless, so you probably won’t know you have them unless they cause a blockage or are being passed. Then there’s usually no mistaking the symptoms of kidney stones, especially, which can cause excruciating pain. Bladder or kidney stones can also cause both gross and microscopic bleeding.
  • Enlarged prostate the prostate gland which is just below the bladder and surrounding the top part of the urethra often enlarges as men approach middle age. It then compresses the urethra, partially blocking urine flow. Signs and symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH) include difficulty urinating, an urgent or persistent need to urinate, and either visible or microscopic blood in the urine. Infection of the prostate (prostatitis) can cause the same signs and symptoms.
  • Kidney disease microscopic urinary bleeding is a common symptom of glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the kidneys’ filtering system. Glomerulonephritis may be part of a systemic disease, such as diabetes, or it can occur on its own. Viral or strep infections, blood vessel diseases (vasculitis), and immune problems such as IgA nephropathy, which affects the small capillaries that filter blood in the kidneys (glomeruli), can trigger glomerulonephritis.
  • Cancer visible urinary bleeding may be a sign of advanced kidney, bladder, or prostate cancer. Unfortunately, you might not have signs or symptoms in the early stages, when these cancers are more treatable.
  • Inherited disorders this id due to family inheritable genetics.
  • Kidney injury a blow or other injury to your kidneys from an accident or contact sports can cause visible blood in your urine.
  • Medications the anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide and penicillin can cause urinary bleeding. Visible urinary blood sometimes occurs if you take an anticoagulant, such as aspirin and the blood thinner heparin, and you also have a condition that causes your bladder to bleed.
  • Strenuous exercise The disease can be prone to anyone who does strenuous exercises. It may be linked to trauma to the bladder, dehydration, or the breakdown of red blood cells that occurs with sustained aerobic exercise. The signs should just not be assumed to come from the exercises its good to seek medical advice.

Risk factors

Everybody  can have red urine some of the causes are;

  • Age due to old age most men older than 50 has occasional hematuria due to an enlarged prostate gland.
  • A recent infection of Kidney inflammation after a viral or bacterial infection the kidney may be inflamed  (post-infectious glomerulonephritis) this can be a cause of visible urinary blood in children.
  • Family history this is due to genetic genes in the family.
  • Certain medications aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pain relievers, and antibiotics such as penicillin are known to increase the risk of urinary bleeding.
  • Strenuous exercise long-distance runners are especially prone to exercise-induced urinary bleeding. This problem is sometimes called jogger’s hematuria. The disease can be prone to anyone who does strenuous exercises.

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